Die 2. Division, bis 2. Liga, ist die dritte professionelle russische Fußball- Spielklasse und wird von der russischen Fußball-Liga organisiert. Die Liga ist. Division East · Russland kindermarkt.nuon South · Schweden 2. Division Norra Gotaland · Schweden 2. Division Norra Svealand · Schweden 2. Division Norrland. Aug. Thema: 2. Division- Russlands 3. Ligen, Beiträge: 49, Datum letzter Beitrag: - Uhr.
The formation of these forces posed economic challenges after the dissolution of the Soviet Union , and required reforms to professionalize the force during the transition.
Since , the Ground Forces have withdrawn many thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while remaining extensively committed to the Chechen Wars , peacekeeping, [ citation needed ] and other operations in the Soviet successor states what is known in Russia as the " near abroad ".
The primary responsibilities of the Ground Forces are the protection of the state borders, combat on land, the security of occupied territories, and the defeat of enemy troops.
The Ground Forces must be able to achieve these goals both in nuclear war and non-nuclear war, especially without the use of weapons of mass destruction.
Furthermore, they must be capable of protecting the national interests of Russia within the framework of its international obligations.
The Main Command of the Ground Forces is officially tasked with the following objectives: As the Soviet Union dissolved, efforts were made to keep the Soviet Armed Forces as a single military structure for the new Commonwealth of Independent States.
However, once it became clear that Ukraine and potentially the other republics was determined to undermine the concept of joint general purpose forces and form their own armed forces, the new Russian government moved to form its own armed forces.
Thirty-seven divisions had to be withdrawn from the four groups of forces and the Baltic States, and four military districts—totalling 57 divisions—were handed over to Belarus and Ukraine.
For the dissolving Soviet Ground Forces, the withdrawal from the former Warsaw Pact states and the Baltic states was an extremely demanding, expensive, and debilitating process.
However, the facilities in those districts were inadequate to house the flood of personnel and equipment returning from abroad, and many units "were unloaded from the rail wagons into empty fields.
Later one commentator said it was "hastily" put together by the General Staff "to satisfy the public demand for radical changes. The reform plan advocated a change from an Army-Division-Regiment structure to a Corps-Brigade arrangement.
The new structures were to be more capable in a situation with no front line, and more capable of independent action at all levels.
Cutting out a level of command, omitting two out of three higher echelons between the theatre headquarters and the fighting battalions, would produce economies, increase flexibility, and simplify command-and-control arrangements.
The new brigades that appeared were mostly divisions that had broken down until they happened to be at the proposed brigade strengths.
New divisions—such as the new 3rd Motor Rifle Division in the Moscow Military District , formed on the basis of disbanding tank formations—were formed, rather than new brigades.
Few of the reforms planned in the early s eventuated, for three reasons: Firstly, there was an absence of firm civilian political guidance, with President Yeltsin primarily interested in ensuring that the Armed Forces were controllable and loyal, rather than reformed.
Finally, there was no firm consensus within the military about what reforms should be implemented. General Pavel Grachev , the first Russian Minister of Defence —96 , broadly advertised reforms, yet wished to preserve the old Soviet-style Army, with large numbers of low-strength formations and continued mass conscription.
The General Staff and the armed services tried to preserve Soviet era doctrines, deployments, weapons, and missions in the absence of solid new guidance.
A British military expert, Michael Orr, claims that the hierarchy had great difficulty in fully understanding the changed situation, due to their education.
As graduates of Soviet military academies , they received great operational and staff training, but in political terms they had learned an ideology, rather than a wide understanding of international affairs.
Thus, the generals—focused on NATO expanding to the east—could not adapt themselves and the Armed Forces to the new opportunities and challenges they faced.
The Ground Forces reluctantly became involved in the Russian constitutional crisis of after President Yeltsin issued an unconstitutional decree dissolving the Parliament, following the Parliament's resistance to Yeltsin's consolidation of power and his neo-liberal reforms.
A group of deputies, including Vice President Alexander Rutskoi , barricaded themselves inside the Parliament building.
While giving public support to the President, the Armed Forces, led by General Grachev, tried to remain neutral, following the wishes of the officer corps.
When the attack was finally mounted, forces from five different divisions around Moscow were used, and the personnel involved were mostly officers and senior non-commissioned officers.
The Chechen people had never willingly accepted Russian rule. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Chechens declared independence in November , under the leadership of a former Air Forces officer, General Dzhokar Dudayev.
A Security Council meeting was held 29 November , where Yeltsin ordered the Chechens to disarm, or else Moscow would restore order.
Defense Minister Pavel Grachev assured Yeltsin that he would "take Grozny with one airborne assault regiment in two hours. The operation began on 11 December and, by 31 December, Russian forces were entering Grozny , the Chechen capital.
The st Motor Rifle Brigade was ordered to make a swift push for the centre of the city, but was then virtually destroyed in Chechen ambushes.
After finally seizing Grozny amid fierce resistance, Russian troops moved on to other Chechen strongholds. When Chechen militants took hostages in the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis in Stavropol Kray in June , peace looked possible for a time, but the fighting continued.
Following this incident, the separatists were referred to as insurgents or terrorists within Russia. Dzhokar Dudayev was assassinated in April , and that summer, a Chechen attack retook Grozny.
Writing some years later, Dmitri Trenin and Aleksei Malashenko described the Russian military's performance in Chechniya as "grossly deficient at all levels, from commander-in-chief to the drafted private.
The Second Chechen War began in August after Chechen militias invaded neighboring Dagestan , followed quickly in early September by a series of four terrorist bombings across Russia.
This prompted Russian military action against the alleged Chechen culprits. In the first Chechen war, the Russians primarily laid waste to an area with artillery and airstrikes before advancing the land forces.
Improvements were made in the Ground Forces between and ; when the Second Chechen War started, instead of hastily assembled "composite regiments" dispatched with little or no training, whose members had never seen service together, formations were brought up to strength with replacements, put through preparatory training, and then dispatched.
Combat performance improved accordingly,  and large-scale opposition was crippled. Most of the prominent past Chechen separatist leaders had died or been killed, including former president Aslan Maskhadov and leading warlord and terrorist attack mastermind Shamil Basayev.
However, small-scale conflict continued to drag on; as of November , it had spread across other parts of the Russian Caucasus. General Colonel Gennady Troshev was dismissed in for refusing to move from command of the North Caucasus Military District to command of the less important Siberian Military District.
The Second Chechen War was officially declared ended on 16 April When Igor Sergeyev arrived as Minister of Defence in , he initiated what were seen as real reforms under very difficult conditions.
A larger number of army divisions were given "constant readiness" status, which was supposed to bring them up to 80 percent manning and percent equipment holdings.
Sergeyev announced in August that there would be six divisions and four brigades on hour alert by the end of that year.
Three levels of forces were announced; constant readiness, low-level, and strategic reserves. However, personnel quality—even in these favored units—continued to be a problem.
Lack of fuel for training and a shortage of well-trained junior officers hampered combat effectiveness. Under President Vladimir Putin , more funds were committed, the Ground Forces Headquarters was reestablished, and some progress on professionalisation occurred.
Plans called for reducing mandatory service to 18 months in , and to one year by , but a mixed Ground Force, of both contract soldiers and conscripts, would remain.
As of , the length of conscript service was 12 months. Funding increases began in ; after some recovery in the Russian economy and the associated rise in income, especially from oil, "Russia's officially reported defence spending [rose] in nominal terms at least, for the first time since the formation of the Russian Federation".
However, in , Alexander Goltz said that, given the insistence of the hierarchy on trying to force contract soldiers into the old conscript pattern, there is little hope of a fundamental strengthening of the Ground Forces.
He further elaborated that they are expected to remain, to some extent, a military liability and "Russia's most urgent social problem" for some time to come.
Top military personnel demonstrate neither the will nor the ability to effect fundamental changes.
More money is arriving both for personnel and equipment; Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said in June that monetary allowances for servicemen in permanent-readiness units will be raised significantly.
However, while the move to one year conscript service would disrupt dedovshchina , it is unlikely that bullying will disappear altogether without significant societal change.
A major reorganisation of the force began in by the Minister for Defence Anatoliy Serdyukov , with the aim of converting all divisions into brigades, and cutting surplus officers and establishments.
It is intended to create 39 to 40 such brigades by 1 January , including 39 all-arms brigades, 21 artillery and MRL brigades, seven brigades of army air defence forces, 12 communication brigades, and two electronic warfare brigades.
In addition, the 18th Machine Gun Artillery Division stationed in the Far East remained, and there will be an additional 17 separate regiments.
In the course of the reorganization, the 4-chain command structure military district - field army - division - regiment that was used until then was replaced with a 3-chain structure: Brigades are supposed to be used as mobile permanent-readiness units capable of fighting independently with the support of highly mobile task forces or together with other brigades under joint command.
In a statement on 4 September , RGF Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Boldyrev said that half of the Russian land forces were reformed by 1 June and that 85 brigades of constant combat preparedness had already been created.
Among them are the combined-arms brigade, missile brigades, assault brigades and electronic warfare brigades. This body was disbanded in , but reformed by President Putin in by appointing Colonel General Nikolai Kormiltsev as the commander-in-chief of the ground forces and also as a deputy minister of defense.
Their exact command status is now unknown. The branches of service include motorized rifles, tanks, artillery and rocket forces , troop air defense , special corps reconnaissance, signals , radioelectronic warfare, engineering , nuclear, biological and chemical protection , logistical support , automobile, and the protection of the rear , military units, and logistical establishments.
The Motorised Rifle Troops, the most numerous branch of service, constitutes the nucleus of Ground Forces' battle formations. They are equipped with powerful armament for destruction of ground-based and aerial targets, missile complexes, tanks, artillery and mortars, anti-tank guided missiles, anti-aircraft missile systems and installations, and means of reconnaissance and control.
It is estimated that there are currently 19 motor rifle divisions, and the Navy now has several motor rifle formations under its command in the Ground and Coastal Defence Forces of the Baltic Fleet , the Northeastern Group of Troops and Forces on the Kamchatka Peninsula and other areas of the extreme northeast.
The Tank Troops are the main impact force of the Ground Forces and a powerful means of armed struggle, intended for the accomplishment of the most important combat tasks.
As of , there were three tank divisions in the force: They consist of surface-to-air missiles , anti-aircraft artillery and radio-technical units and subdivisions.
However, by , Army Aviation will have been transferred back to the Ground Forces and 18 new aviation brigades will have been added.
As a result of the Russian military reforms , the ground forces now consist of armies subordinate to the four new military districts: The new districts have the role of 'operational strategic commands,' which command the Ground Forces as well as the Naval Forces and part of the Air and Air Defence Forces within their areas of responsibility.
Each major formation is bolded, and directs the non-bolded major subordinate formations. A current detailed list of the subordinate units of the four military districts can be found in the respective articles.
Almost all are now designated otdelnaya separate , with only several brigades retaining the guards honorific title. In , two of these brigades were reactivated as full divisions: These two divisions marked the beginning of the expansion of the Ground Forces as more brigades are being reformed into full divisions within each military district.
In , the Ground Forces included an estimated total of , persons, including approximately , conscripts and 35, personnel of the Airborne Forces VDV.
The Ground Forces began their existence in , inheriting the Soviet military manpower system practically unchanged, though it was in a state of rapid decay.
The Soviet Ground Forces were traditionally manned through terms of conscription, which had been reduced in from three to two years.
This system was administered through the thousands of military commissariats Russian: Between January and May of each year, every young Soviet male citizen was required to report to the local voyenkomat for assessment for military service, following a summons based on lists from every school and employer in the area.
The voyenkomat worked to quotas sent out by a department of the General Staff, listing how many young men were required by each service and branch of the Armed Forces.
The new conscripts were then picked up by an officer from their future unit and usually sent by train across the country.
On arrival, they would begin the Young Soldiers' course, and become part of the system of senior rule, known as dedovshchina , literally "rule by the grandfathers.
These conscript NCOs were supplemented by praporshchik warrant officers, positions created in the s to support the increased variety of skills required for modern weapons.
The Soviet Army's officer-to-soldier ratio was extremely top-heavy, partially in order to compensate for the relatively low education level of the military manpower base and the absence of professional NCOs.
Young officers in Soviet Army units were worked round the clock, normally receiving only three days off per month.
Annual vacations were under threat if deficiencies emerged within the unit, and the pressure created enormous stress.
Towards the end of the Soviet Union, this led to a decline in morale amongst young officers. The division's performance in combat was poor, and two battalions mutinied, murdered their German leaders, and defected to the FFI.
Other troops of the division crossed the Swiss border and were interned. Afterwards, some of the division's personnel were transferred to the Russian Liberation Army while others were retained to form the SS "White Ruthenian" infantry brigade from January On 31 July orders were issued to form a division from the personnel of the Schutzmannschaft-Brigade Siegling , who were subsequently organized into four infantry regiments numbered 1 through 4.
The initial organization of the division also included an artillery battalion, a cavalry battalion, and a training battalion.
The term "Waffen-Grenadier" was used to denote SS infantry divisions manned by personnel of other-than-German ethnicity. At the end of August , division strength was estimated as 11, with the bulk originating from Belarus.
The leadership cadre of the division was primarily German. In mid-August , the division was moved by rail to southeastern France in the region of Belfort and Mulhouse.
By October, the organization of the division had been altered to three infantry regiments of three battalions each, a motorcycle reconnaissance battalion, an artillery battalion, and a field replacement battalion.
Elements of the division arrived in Vesoul on 20 August and were charged with the security of the Belfort Gap , particularly against operations conducted by the French Forces of the Interior FFI.
Subsequent events demonstrated the division's lack of loyalty to the Nazi cause. On 27 August , under the direction of Major Lev Leon Hloba, a Ukrainian battalion of the division at Vesoul shot their German leadership cadre and defected to an FFI unit in the Confracourt Woods, bringing men,  mm antitank guns, mm and mm mortars, 21 heavy machine guns, as well as large amounts of small arms and small-caliber ammunition.
On 29 August , the first and third battalions of the division's 4th Regiment deserted and crossed the border into Switzerland. On 2 September, two squadrons companies of the division's cavalry battalion formerly Kosaken -Schuma-Abteilung 68 and redesignated the Waffen-Reiter-Abteilung der SS 30  were surrounded and destroyed in a surprise attack at Melin by the Ukrainians who had defected in the Confracourt Woods.
The subsequent investigation of these events by German authorities resulted in some 2, men in the division being deemed "unreliable". Schanzregiment subordinated to the Karlsruhe Transport Commandant, leaving some 5, men still in the division.
On 24 October , the division had reorganized into three regiments, numbered 75 to 77, each of two infantry battalions. This organization accorded with the orders for formation of the division that had been issued in August by the SS Führungshauptamt.
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